Bonnie Goodman, writing for History News Network, ‘DECEMBER 17, 1862: GRANT ISSUES GENERAL ORDER NO. 11 AGAINST THE JEWS’:
On this day in history… December 17, 1862, Union General Ulysses S. Grant issues General Order Number 11, expelling Jews from areas of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Kentucky.
General Order Number 11 stands out in American history as the first instance of a policy of official anti-Semitism on a large scale. The anti-Semitic order had deeper roots; many Northerners and Union army officials harbored anti-Jewish resentments. Jews in Union occupied Southern cities and towns faced the brunt of this prejudice. As Berthram Wallace Korn explains in his authoritative work, American Jewry and the Civil War(1951): “Some of the most prominent people in the Union were imbued with prejudice against the Jews.” (Korn, 164) It was this anti-Semitism within the ranks of the Union army that led to General Grant’s General Order No. 11 that called for all Jews to be expelled in his district, which covered the states of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Kentucky.
Underlying the order was a negative image of the Jewish merchant and the belief that Jews were part of an black market in Southern cotton. Although at war, the North and South still relied on each other economically. The North especially needed the South’s surplus cotton for the production of military tents and uniforms. The Union army would have implemented a ban on trade with the South completely; President Abraham Lincoln preferred a limited trade in cotton. The Battle of Shiloh made this trade possible by opening up the Mississippi River down to Vicksburg. This soon became very profitable for both sides; army officers, treasury agents, and individual speculators became involved, although Jews were distinctly a minority.
Army officers especially took advantage of the moneymaking possibilities to such a great extent that Lincoln complained,”the army itself is diverted from fighting rebels to speculating in cotton.” Although neither side prohibited the trade, President Lincoln ordered that all of the cotton that was traded had to be licensed by the Treasury Department and the army. Each army commander was responsible for the cotton trade in their respective areas. General Ulysses S. Grant was the commander of the Department of the Tennessee, and therefore responsible for the licenses in that area. The limited trade in cotton and the overwhelming need for cotton in the Northern army led to soaring prices. This prompted many traders to bribe officials to be able to sell cotton without a permit. Jesse Grant, Grant’s father, took a prominent role in trading cotton and obtaining permits.
By the fall of 1862, trading was getting out of hand. Grant was annoyed that requests for licenses were distracting him from planning the capture of Vicksburg. Grant was getting an abundance of requests for licenses, and when Grant’s father sought them for a group of Cincinnati merchants, among whom were some Jews, the general issued his order. Although some of the traders were Jewish, most were not. Among the high ranks of the Union Army the words”Jew,””profiteer,””speculator” and”trader” all meant the same thing (Feldberg, 118), while the Union commanding General Henry W. Halleck lumped together “traitors and Jew peddlers.” Grant concurred, describing Jews as “the Israelites,” an “intolerable nuisance.” It was because of old European prejudices and anti-Semitism that Jews were singled out. As in Europe, Jews were made scapegoats. History was repeating itself, but it this time it was in America.
On November 9 and 10, Grant sent his commanders in Jackson, Tennessee, orders that”no Jews are to be permitted to travel on the railroad southward [into the Department of the Tennessee] from any point.” Grant also noted his disdain for Jews to C.P. Wolcott, Assistant Secretary of the Army. He claimed Treasury regulations were being violated”mostly by Jews and other unprincipled traders.” (Feingold, 93) However, the illegal trading of cotton continued and Grant continued to believe it was the fault of the Jewish merchants. On December 17, 1862, he issued Order 11:
The Jews, as a class violating every regulation of trade established by the Treasury Department and also department orders, are hereby expelled from the department [the”Department of the Tennessee,” an administrative district of the Union Army of occupation composed of Kentucky, Tennessee and Mississippi] within twenty-four hours from the receipt of this order. Post commanders will see to it that all of this class of people be furnished passes and required to leave, and any one returning after such notification will be arrested and held in confinement until an opportunity occurs of sending them out as prisoners, unless furnished with permit from headquarters. No passes will be given these people to visit headquarters for the purpose of making personal application of trade permits.
The order implied that all Jews in the region were speculators and traders, which they were not. Despite this, Grant’s subordinates carried out the order around his headquarters in Holly Springs and also Oxford, Mississippi, and Paducah, Kentucky where the Jews of these communities had to evacuate from their residences within a 24 hour period. In Holly Springs, the Jewish traders in the area had to walk 40 miles to evacuate the area. Thirty Jewish families who had been long time residents of the town also had to evacuate even though none of them engaged in the cotton speculation and two of them had been veterans of the Union Army.
The order caused an uproar and was criticized by both the Jewish community under Union command, and non-Jews in opposition to the Union’s Republicans. The anti-Semitic order was a shock for a Jewish community that had been rarely discriminated against. Democrats and others opposed to the administration believed the order represented another example of Lincoln’s willingness to trample on civil liberties. Peace Democrats complained that the Republicans were more concerned with the rights of blacks than of Jews, who were white. Jewish leaders organized protest rallies in St. Louis, Louisville and Cincinnati, while the leaders of the Jewish communities in Chicago, New York and Philadelphia sent telegrams to Lincoln protesting the order.
Residents of the expelled Jewish communities denounced the order. Cesar Kaskel, a merchant and president of the Paducah Union League, sent a telegram to Lincoln condemning Grant’s actions as an”enormous outrage on all laws and humanity, … the grossest violation of the Constitution and our rights as good citizens under it.” (Feldberg, 119) Kaskel also led a delegation to Washington to meet with Lincoln directly. He arrived in Washington just two days after the Emancipation Proclamation became law. Kaskel met with the influential Jewish Republican, Adolphus Solomons, and was accompanied to the White House by Cincinnati Congressman John A. Gurley. They showed Lincoln documents proving that the Jews who had been expelled from their homes were upstanding citizens not involved in cotton speculation.
Lincoln ordered General Halleck, General in Chief of the Army, to revoke the order. Halleck wrote to Grant on January 4,”A paper purporting to be General Orders, No. 11, issued by you December 17, has been presented here. By its terms, it expells [sic] all Jews from your department. If such an order has been issued, it will be immediately revoked.” Grant complied three days later, but mass evacuation of the Jewish communities in Holly Springs and Oxford, Mississippi, and Paducah, Kentucky had already been carried out.
General Order No. 11 was a rare instance of officially ordered anti-Semitism in American history, but just the fact that an order was signed and implemented punishing a religious community, as historian Henry Feingold states,”without due process of law,” put a spot on America’s reputation of religious tolerance. (Feingold, 94) It was an act more reminiscent of the anti-Semitism Jews endured in Europe for centuries, where without reason Jewish communities were expelled from towns and countries at a moment’s notice. The order revealed a disdain for Jews by high ranking officials in the Union army among them Grant, William T. Sherman, and H. W. Halleck. It demonstrated that Jews in both the North and South were not sheltered from official anti-Semitism even in the safe haven of America.
Abraham J. Karp, ‘From the Ends of the Earth: Judaic Treasures of the Library of Congress’ sustains these claims and has the documented historical evidence. (In addition to the sources provided in the above article from History News Network.)
In 1862, Ulysses S. Grant issued what might well be the most anti-Semitic order in American history. The Union general demanded that all Jews living in the lower Midwest pack their bags and hit the road. Fortunately, a Confederate cavalry leader, a Jewish Kentuckian, and a president from Illinois saved the day.
According to Grant’s thinking, all those smugglers and speculators had to be Jewish, and they had to be “expelled from the department within twenty-four hours from the receipt of this order.” And if any of them tried to come back, Grant would make sure they’d spend time behind bars. However, the order didn’t spark the massive exodus the general had hoped for. In an ironic twist, Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest destroyed all the telegraph lines surrounding Grant’s headquarters in Mississippi, preventing the missive from spreading too fast. In other words, Forrest—future grand wizard of the KKK—had unknowingly saved a huge number of Jews from leaving their Southern homes.
However, a few towns were eventually cleared out. On December 28, the Jews of Paducah, Kentucky were kicked out of town, and that ticked off Paducah resident Cesar Kaskel. When the order came that he had to leave, Kaskel left all right: He headed straight to Washington, D.C. With the help of a Republican Congressman, Kaskel was taken to the White House where he met with Abraham Lincoln himself.
When Kaskel arrived at Lincoln’s office, Lincoln’s first reply was “And so the Children of Israel were driven from the happy land of Canaan?”
This sly comment highlights the fact that Lincoln had attained anti-Christ consciousness and properly understood the “history” taught in the Bible – where the Canaanites are a race of white Gentiles destined to be exterminated by the Israelites. It is probably the most explicit anti-Semitic comment Lincoln ever made.
After this pogrom, in 1864, President Abraham Lincoln promoted then-Major General Ulysses S. Grant to the rank of lieutenant general of the U.S. Army, tasking the future president with the job of leading all Union troops against the Confederate Army.
Neither Abraham Lincoln nor Ulysses S. Grant were Freemasons. They both held anti-Semitic, anti-black, and anti-Amerindian sentiments. In no way was either Lincoln or Grant in the pocket of Jewry.
It was Lincoln’s firm plan to actually deport the negros back to Africa. As Revilo P. Oliver noted, ‘What We Owe Our Parasites’:
Lincoln [was] right in regarding [slavery] as a system that was pernicious, for quite rational reasons, of which the most important were: first, that it maintained on our soil millions of persons of a race radically different from our own, and by our standards inferior; and second, that it resulted in some production of mongrels, pitiable creatures torn apart by the incompatible instincts they had inherited. As you know, it was the firm purpose of Abraham Lincoln to have all the Negroes either returned to Africa, or, in the interests of economy, to Central America. But the abolitionists were not rational. … For after the assassination of Lincoln, which they certainly contrived, our hate-crazed “do-gooders” had their way.
In his debate with Stephen A. Douglas at Ottawa, Illinois, August 21, 1858, Abraham Lincoln himself stated:
I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and black races. There is a physical difference between the two, which, in my judgement, will probably forever forbid their living together upon the footing of perfect equality; and inasmuch as it becomes a necessity that there must be a difference, I am in favor of the race to which I belong having the superior position.
As President of the United States, Lincoln used swift action in order to combat Jewish slave-traders and financier capitalists. He never promoted racial integration. And in fact, Abraham Lincoln was engaged in the largest, most successful struggle against the forces of Jewish capitalism, Freemasonry, Christianity, and racial integration (all at once) that had ever existed up until that point in time. Ezra Pound regarded the Nazis as “the first serious attack on usurocracy since the time of Lincoln.”
As scholar William Dudley Pelley pointed out:
Lincoln was a Nazi because his issue of greenbacks smashed the control of Jewish financiers. Lincoln, who hated the international bankers, began issuing paper money to break their power and, therefore, had to be killed (by the Jewish John Wilkes Booth).
According to Bismarck, the awful Civil War in America was fomented by a Jewish conspiracy, and Abraham Lincoln, the hero and national saint of the United States, was killed by the same Hidden Hand which killed six Romanov czars, ten kings, and scores of ministers only to bleed nations.
Although Lincoln himself never publicly proclaimed against the Jews – it is possible that he and Ulysses S. Grant were the true authors of ‘Might is Right’. Hints as to Lincoln’s real sentiments in regards to the Jews can be gleaned from his understanding of Christianity (as already once mentioned).
In response to the clerical lie that Abe was a Christian, Abe’s good friend (and fellow lawyer) William H. Herndon retorted:
I believe that Mr. Lincoln did not late in life become a firm believer in the Christian religion. What! Mr. Lincoln discard his logical faculties and reason with his heart? What! Mr. Lincoln believe that Jesus was the Christ of God, the true and only begotten son of him, as the Christian creed contends? What! Mr. Lincoln believe that the New Testament is of special divine authority, and fully and infallibly inspired, as the Christian contends’? What! Mr. Lincoln abandon his lifelong ideas of universal, eternal and absolute laws and contend that the New Testament is any more inspired than Homer’s poems, than Milton’s ‘Paradise Lost,’ than Shakespeare, than his own eloquent and inspired oration at gettysburg? What! Mr. Lincoln believe that the great Creator had connection through the form and instrumentality of a shadow with a Jewish girl? Blasphemy!
Lincoln’s favorite authors to read on Christianity were Lord Bolingbroke and Voltaire. These authors can only fairly be called “anti-Semites” and the Jewishness of Christianity was their biggest problem with it.
Another friend and admirer of Lincoln was Orin B. Gould. He became acquainted with Lincoln in Illinois at an early day, and a close friendship existed between them while Lincoln lived. Previous to his death the question of Lincoln’s religion was presented to him and his own views on the subject solicited. His response was as follows:
He, like myself, recognized no monsters for Gods. He, like myself, discarded the divinity of Christ, and the idea of a hell’s fire. He, like myself, believed the Devil and evil to be simply “truth misunderstood.”
Ben Phelan, ‘Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest and the KKK’:
Sherman confessed to being perpetually flummoxed by Forrest’s feral cunning and exhausted by his energy. In his first engagement, in Kentucky, Forrest defeated a Union force twice the size of his own. In subsequent battles, he took on and defeated, time and again, larger, better-equipped, and more thoroughly trained forces, often by dint of subterfuge and deceit — more than once he tricked Union commanders into surrendering to his smaller force — but just as often by ferocity and shrewdness. He fought alongside his troops, and by the end of the war had personally killed 30 enemy soldiers. His own horses fared only a little better. He had 29 shot from underneath him, sometimes one within minutes of its ill-fated successor. He was wounded four times, two bullets coming to rest near his spine.
In the spring of 1864, low on provisions, Forrest attacked and captured Fort Pillow, a garrison north of Memphis. The incident became perhaps the most controversial military action in the Civil War, as Forrest had at his command more than twice as many soldiers as were occupying the fort, about half of whom were recently freed slaves. Surrounded and outnumbered, the Union forces declined to surrender, and, typically, Forrest was ruthless. His men overran Fort Pillow, taking few prisoners. The Union called the battle a massacre. Forrest would later appear before Congress to defend himself against charges of war crimes, and though he was found not guilty, he was known to many, for the rest of his life, as the Butcher of Fort Pillow.
After the war, Forrest returned to a devastated Tennessee and publicly advocated for peaceful submission to the victorious Union. But he was not the beneficiary of a sudden racial enlightenment, nor did he submit entirely to the new world order, one characterized by the societal tumult of Reconstruction and the removal of the Southern economy’s cornerstone. Perhaps blacks were no longer slaves, but, Forrest believed, they had to remain the South’s docile workforce, for their own good as well as his. “I am not an enemy of the negro,” Forrest said. “We want him here among us; he is the only laboring class we have.”
Meanwhile, in Pulaski, Tennessee, six Confederate veterans had formed, as a lark, a secret society that they whimsically dubbed the Ku Klux Klan (from the Greek word for circle, kuklos — they evidently liked the mystical ring of the alliterated k’s.) At first, the six men and their recruits undertook non-violent, theatrical stunts to frighten back into line the freed slaves just beginning to assert their new rights. But soon enough, more men joined the KKK and, as Republican efforts to rehabilitate Southern society grew more concerted, the KKK became a violent, marauding organization whose individual “dens” answered to no centralized authority. Society was changing quickly, and the KKK was trying to slow the pace. Bodies of freedmen, their white supporters, and Republicans began to litter the roadside.
It was at about this time that Forrest, learning of the KKK, expressed a desire to join. The eminent recruit was elected grand wizard, the Klan’s highest official, and tried to bring the rapidly multiplying dens under a centralized authority — his own. Forrest probably did not object to the violence, per se, as a means of restoring the pre-war hierarchy, but as a military man, he deplored the lack of discipline and structure that defined the growing KKK. In its methods and aims, the KKK was merely the avenging ghost of the Confederate army. To Forrest’s dismay, though, it was not an army that he could command.
After only a year as Grand Wizard, in January 1869, faced with an ungovernable membership employing methods that seemed increasingly counterproductive, Forrest issued KKK General Order Number One: “It is therefore ordered and decreed, that the masks and costumes of this Order be entirely abolished and destroyed.” By the end of his life, Forrest’s racial attitudes would evolve — in 1875, he advocated for the admission of blacks into law school — and he lived to fully renounce his involvement with the all-but-vanished Klan.
William Luther Pierce, whose grandfather fought in the Civil War on the side of the South, even concluded:
If any apology is owed, it is an apology to White Americans today from the very small percentage of our ancestors who were in the business of running plantations in the pre-Civil War South and whose desire for slave labor inflicted the Black presence on us.
Jews owned many, though not all, of the ships involved in the 18th and 19th-century Atlantic trade in Black slaves and, in fact, played a very prominent role in bringing Black slaves to America.
The pro-slavery faction, by no means insignificant in numbers, had few leaders, their most earnest advocate being Rabbi Morris J. Raphall, of New York, author of Post-Biblical History of the Jews. In a pamphlet entitled Bible View of Slavery, published shortly after Lincoln’s election, he sought to show that the “Divine Institution” had Scriptural sanction, a proposition by no means original. Rev. Leander Ker of Missouri having taken the same ground as early as 1853 in a book, Slavery Sanctioned by the Bible. Mr. Leeser, while sustaining Raphall, deplored his utterances as untimely, and Michael Heilprin in an article in the New York Tribune completely demonstrated the fallacy of Raphall’s contention.
Writing from Philadelphia to the Israelite on January 13, 1861, Rabbi Wise said it was “not so much the election of Lincoln in itself that threatened the destruction of the Union as the speeches of Lincoln and his colleagues on the irrepressible conflict doctrine.” While deprecating the threatened dissolution of the Union, Rabbi Wise indulged in frequent humorous flings at Lincoln after his election, comparing him to “a country squire who would look queer in the White House with his primitive manner.” He also protested against his entertainment while passing through Cincinnati on his way to Washington. Later on, his admiration for Lincoln was unbounded. In the course of an address following the President’s death and published in the Cincinnati Commercial of April 20, 1865, he thus attempted to prove that he was one of the chosen people: “Abraham Lincoln believed himself to be bone of our bone and flesh of our flesh. He supposed himself to be of Hebrew parentage, he said so in my presence, and indeed he possessed the common features of the Hebrew race both in countenance and features.” As a matter of fact Lincoln’s knowledge of his ancestry was vague. Robert T. Lincoln states in reply to an inquiry of the writer, that he had “never before heard that his father supposed he had any Jewish ancestry.”
Susan Lawrence Davis was one of the founding members of the KKK. She wrote an authobiographical book entitled: ‘Authentic History of the Ku Klux Klan (1865-1877)’. Here are some excerpts:
In 1867 Bishop Richard H. Wilmer, who was a close friend of General Morgan, the Second Dragon of the Realm of Alabama, went to England and there he saw Judah P. Benjamin who had been a member of the Confederate States Cabinet.
Among other things he told him of the Ku Klux Klan and the power it was exerting, and the necessity for keeping up the ghostly idea that the negroes might be controlled, and told him of the scarcity of suitable dry-goods and horses for the use of the Ku Klux Klan.
Mr. Benjamin’s interest in the Ku Klux Klan was so aroused that he borrowed money and gave it to Bishop Wilmer to buy horses, saddles, fire-arms, and other necessities for the Ku Klux Klan.
Several years after the work of the Ku Klux Klan had been completed, a fund was raised by the women of the South, by festivals, oyster-suppers, charades and other entertainments, that this money might be returned to Mr. Benjamin. I helped to raise this money.
Mr. Judah P. Benjamin was a Jew, born in 1812 on one of the British West India Islands while his parents were on their way to the United States. He attended Yale College. He was a lawyer in New Orleans, La., when he was elected to the United States Senate, where Mr. Jefferson Davis met him and of whom he said “Mr. Benjamin had very high reputation as a lawyer and my acquaintance with him in the Senate impressed me with the lucidity of his intellect, his systematic habits, and capacity for labor. He was, therefore, invited to the post of Attorney General in the cabinet of the Confederate States of America.” He was later made Secretary of War, then Secretary of State—and served to the end of the Confederacy, and was with Jefferson Davis when they crossed the Savannah River, after the night march from Abbeville, S. C, after the fall of the Confederacy.
Mr. Benjamin escaped after leaving Mr. Davis and went to Bermuda and then to England. He became a Queen’s Counsel in London and was highly esteemed as an English barrister. Mr. Burton N. Harrison who was with Jefferson Davis when he was captured said it was best for the Confederacy and Mr. Davis that he did not escape with Mr. Benjamin, as having been a prisoner of the United States Government, and the fact that he was never brought to trial on any of the charges was sufficient vindication.
Mr. Benjamin became very wealthy in England and Mrs. Jefferson Davis told me that he often sent her money to relieve the needy among his friends in the United States, as well as the assistance rendered the Ku Klux Klan, as the South had been plundered so as to render this help necessary; for the South was being financially ruined by the frauds perpetrated by the United States Treasury Department in their efforts to sell all the property subject to seizure under the Confiscation Acts of Congress; cotton was confiscated and a commission of 25% was paid the agents. The Ku Klux Klan Minority Report of the subcommittee on “Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States” stated that three million bales of cotton were confiscated, and that the government received only 114,000 bales.
No soldier in the service served longer than [Captain Crowe], as shown by the dates of his enlistment and surrender. He was Colonel on General Harrison’s Staff of Confederate Veterans and also Colonel on the staff of all the Commanders in Chief (United Confederate Veterans).
As a Mason, Major Crowe attained the rank of Most Illustrious Grand Master of the Grand Council of Tennessee, in 1886. He was a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church and was active in all its councils. Major Crowe removed from Pulaski to Sheffield, Alabama, when that town was founded in 1880, where he became a very progressive citizen and acquired large interests.
Dr. Nicholas Davis Richardson, Grand Cyclops of the Athens Ku Klux Klan, was born November 30, 1832, at Athens, Alabama, and died January 3, 1895, at Nashville, Tennessee, and was buried at Athens, Alabama. He was a son of Wm. Richardson and Ann Ridley (Davis) Richardson; a grandson of Nicholas Davis and Martha Pleasants (Hargrave) Davis of Virginia, who came to Alabama in 1817, and settled in Limestone County, and built them a magnificent home called “Walnut Grove” where they brought with them the traditional Virginia hospitality.
Dr. Nicholas Davis Richardson was educated at the John Frazer Academy in his native town, at LaGrange College, University of Virginia, and Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Penn. He was a devout Methodist, and a high Mason. He entered the Confederate States Army in 1861, and was Surgeon of the Twenty-sixth Alabama, and Fiftieth Regiments until the close of the war in 1865.
General Albert Pike was born in Boston, Massachusetts, December 29, 1809. When he was four years old his parents removed to Newburyport in the same State, where young Pike grew to manhood, getting the usual education of the times in the common schools, supplemented by a few terms at a private school in the same town and at the academy in Framingham.
He began to teach school at the age of fifteen and when sixteen passed an examination for and entered the freshman class at Harvard. Owing to straitened circumstances he paid for his board and tuition by teaching during the fall and winter at Gloucester.
He fitted himself while teaching to enter the Junior class in the fall of 1826 and passed the necessary examination, but owing to a misunderstanding with the faculty regarding his tuition fees he returned home and educated himself, going through the prescribed course of studies for the junior and senior years while teaching. He taught in Fairhaven and afterward as assistant and principal in the grammar school at Newburyport and then for several years in a private school in the latter town, until March, 1831.
In the spring of 1831 he started for the West, walking much of the way, and for the next few years traveled, explored, traded and lived among the Indians, learning their language and customs, and by his honest and straight-forward association with them, gained a confidence which thirty years afterwards, during the great Civil War, made him so useful and powerful among them in the cause of the Confederacy which he espoused, and later in the prosecution of claims against the U. S. Government in their behalf. General Pike commanded a regiment and afterward a brigade of Indian troops, C. S. A.
About 1851 he transferred the practice of law from Little Rock to New Orleans, practicing also before the Supreme Court of the United States, returning in 1857 to Little Rock where he remained until the outbreak of the Civil War, when he served as commissioner for negotiating treaties with the Indians and as Brigadier General in the Confederate States Army.
He joined Free Masonry in 1850 and in less than nine years became the highest ranking officer in this institution, becoming Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of the 33rd Degree for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, which is the “Mother Supreme Council of the World” and was founded at Charleston, South Carolina, May 31, 1801, and which office he occupied from 1859 until his death in 1891. General Pike became universally known throughout the masonic world by reason of his activities in promoting the growth of this branch of FreeMasonry and it was his genius that evolved the modern rituals of this masonic rite out of the older rituals in use in earlier times.
Besides poetry and his numerous masonic writings, he wrote on law, politics, philosophy, military science and general literature. His manuscript writings total in round numbers 36,000 pages and his printed writings total about 25,000 pages. Practically all of his works are to be found in the Library of the Supreme Council at Washington.
It is an interesting fact and significant of the man that he never published any book for sale. With the exception of his legal briefs, whatever he had printed was done at his own expense for private circulation or was donated to the Supreme Council of the 33rd Degree over which he presided for so many years.
On his death-bed he took up an old-fashioned pencil and calling for a slip of paper wrote this now famous thought: “Shalom!—Peace—that comes with blessing to care-fretted weary men, when Death’s dreamless sleep ends all suffering and sorrow.”
James D. Richardson, 33rd Degree (Tennessee) said in his address at the dedication of the Memorial to General Pike, the magnificent Temple of the Supreme Council on 16th Street, Washington, D. C.
“When he closed his eyes in death the greatest light that ever shone in FreeMasonry, in any land, went out. Scottish Masons everywhere, no matter what language they spoke, knew him and bore testimony to their reverence and admiration for him. The Grand Bodies of the Rite in many other lands delighted to honor him; in addition to the high honors bestowed upon him by the Mother Supreme Council of the World he was Honorary Grand Commander of the Supreme Councils of Brazil (United), Egypt and Tunis ; Honorary Member of the Supreme Councils for the Northern Jurisdiction of the United States, France, Belgium, Italy at Torino, Spain, England and Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Greece, Hungary, Nueva Granada, Canada, Colon, Peru, Mexico and Uruguay.”
For the foregoing biography of General Pike, I am greatly indebted to Wm. L. Boyden, 33rd Degree, Librarian of The Temple of the Supreme Council of the 33rd and Last Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Free Masonry of the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States of America, Washington, D. C.
Part of a set of chess men was taken from the mountain home of Albert Pike when it was raided by a detachment of the Second Kansas, U. S. A. Cavalry, who were camped near Little Rock, Ark., in the summer of 1863. When they returned to camp they distributed their booty and these chess men fell to the lot of Capt. E. S. Stover of Co. B.Soon after the war he moved to New Mexico and became Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Scottish Rite Masons there.
In 1915, after so many years, and when he was then over 80 years of age (though now dead) he returned them to be placed among the relics of General Pike in the Library of the SUPREME COUNCIL.
These old-fashioned chess men were like the ones in my home with which General Forrest played a “make believe” game with me when I was a little girl. General Albert Pike had a most remarkable memory, and one of his greatest feats in this line was reproducing entirely from memory the Scottish Rite Ritual, all copies of it having been destroyed by fire in Charleston, S. C, when it was burned by the Federals during the Civil War.
General Pike organized the Ku Klux Klan in Arkansas after General Forrest appointed him Grand Dragon of that Realm at the convention at Nashville, Tenn. He was also appointed at that time Chief Judicial Officer of The Invisible Empire. He advised in this capacity that the Ku Klux Klan memorize their Ritual and to never make it public.
I have made diligent effort to obtain a written Ritual and have requested hundreds of the original Klan to recite this for me and they have always said that this one secret would never be revealed.
General Pike appointed Mr. Henry Fielding and Mr. Eppie Fielding of Fayetteville, Arkansas, to assist him in organizing Dens in that state. They were members of the Athens, Ala., Klan from its beginning and went to Arkansas, to live in 1867. They were Confederate soldiers, and gave me much information about the powerful influence General Pike had over the people of Arkansas during the dark days of reconstruction.
In 1872 Arkansas had two governments operating at one time and civil war was threatened and great excitement prevailed against the Washington Government. General Pike called a mass meeting at Little Rock, Ark., in the Capitol building and appealed to the people to be patient until better times would come and assured them that he would go to Washington and intercede for them, which he did many times.
At this meeting General Pike unfurled the Stars and Stripes and in a most beautiful manner, asked the people to follow it, which thousands of them did, promising him to be patient until the Ku Klux Klan could redeem the state.
General Forrest spent the summer of 1877 seeking health in the mountains of Tennessee, at Hurricane Springs, and in August he went to Elkmont Springs, Giles County, near Pulaski, the birthplace of the Ku Klux Klan. The marvelous mineral water of these springs improved his condition for awhile but the deep-seated disease had wrought its work and it was apparent that his days were numbered.
He called the Ku Klux Klan to meet at Elkmont Springs and assured them that his prayer had been answered—and the South was saved. He then issued by couriers a call for a final meeting at Athens, Alabama, of all the Klansmen of the “Invisible Empire,” as his strength was failing and this place was on his way back to his home in Memphis. All of the Grand Dragons of the Realms of the Invisible Empire responded to the call and many other of the Ku Klux Klan were there when the meeting was held in 1877, in the “Pepin Hall”—an improvised auditorium in the upper chamber of the Home of Mr. and Mrs. Henry J. Pepin, for all public buildings had been destroyed by the Federal Army and this was the meeting place for all public gatherings at that time.
In the “Pepin Hall” was an altar which had been placed there by Mr. and Mrs. Pepin who were Catholics, and who arranged to have a priest come at intervals for services and they would invite the Catholics far and near to attend.
The Masonic Hall of the town had been damaged by the Federal soldiers and this hall was used by the Masons. On the night General Forrest met with the Ku Klux Klan the last time this hall was used by the Masons, who first donned their Masonic regalia and an hour later their Ku Klux Klan regalia.
General Forrest had orally communicated to the Grand Dragons of the Invisible Empire, his order of disbandment number one (No. 1, September, 1877) after which he reverently approached the little altar and kneeling led them in prayer. He arose and turned to them and with great emotion and said, “Mary’s and my Mother’s prayers have been answered, and I have made my peace with God, and I wish to die at peace with all the world.”
He thanked the Ku Klux Klan for their fidelity to him during his leadership, and assured them that he had never doubted them, or believed that they had ever violated their Ku Klux oath. General Nathan B. Forrest’s last words to the Ku Klux Klan were: “There never was a time before or since its organization when such an Order as the Ku Klux Klan could have lived. May there never be again!”
Adolf Hitler himself did not think that Lincoln was a tool of Jewry. Nor did Nazis generally view the Confederacy as representative of white power. “Britain did not support the Southern States in the American Civil War. And the German brotherhood of nations put Lincoln firmly in the saddle.” was Hitler’s remark.
And a 1944 Nazi propaganda poster titled “LIBERATORS”, published in 1944 by the Dutch SS-Storm magazine, seems to depict the KKK in a negative light. The original color version titled “Kultur-Terror”, was made by the Norwegian Harald Damsleth for Nasjonal Samling in 1943:
The Klan and the Confederacy are Jewish supremacist, rather than white supremacist, heritage. Ben Klassen re-iterates this point:
The Jews keep rehashing the Civil War , the “nostalgia” of it all, the “colorful” generals, and so on, ad nauseam. The fact that the Mexican War was a most constructive and productive war and the Civil War a terrible ghastly blunder, perpetrated by the Jews themselves, is never pointed out. [WMB]
In the South the Rothchilds had Juda P. Benjamin, a Jew and a relative of the Rothchild family, as Secretary of the Treasury for the Confederacy. [NER]
In fact, during the Civil War, in a temporary lapse, Abraham Lincoln invoked the legitimate powers of Congress and issued 450 million dollars in printed currency, later called “Greenbacks” that did not derive through the hands of the International Jewish Bankers, and no interest was paid on this money. This single act so enraged the Jewish bankers, that they had Lincoln assassinated by one of their agents, namely Botha, alias John Wilkes Booth, a Jew. [WMB]
And Kerry Bolton notes:
The most significant loan obtained by the Confederacy, that of the Erlangers, was only gained through tough negotiation by Benjamin.
Benjamin personally negotiated the $25 million loan with Baron Emile Erlanger, in Richmond, Virginia. He hoped that involvement with the banking house of Erlanger and Cie, and with the Erlanger family, who were close friends and advisors to France’s Emperor Louis Napoleon, would succeed in establishing diplomatic relations, which had failed to make any headway with Britain. The original plan had been for a loan of $25 million to be repaid with bonds and the sale of cotton, with the Erlangers reaping a huge profit of 23% commission and 8% for handling the bonds.
Diplomatic recognition [of the Confederacy] by Britain was never obtained, and as early as 1863 Benjamin closed the CSA mission to England, and evicted the remaining British consular agents from the South.
And just as in the Nazi rebellion, during Lincoln and Grant’s national-socialist rebellion the Catholic Church and Freemasonry took the same side (against white power). Famous secularist Robert G. Ingersoll noted: “From the Vatican came words of encouragement for the South. It was declared that the North was fighting for empire and the South for independence.”