by Kerry Bolton
It was [Herbert] Marcuse who answered the question as to who will make the revolution: in place of the workers there would be a new cultural underclass of revolutionaries drawn from youth, women, ethnics, and homosexuals; whatever elements could be disaffected and alienated from Western civilisation; that is, what became the New Left and what has metamorphosed into other movements to the present. The Encyclopedia of World Biography states:
His application of the theories of Sigmund Freud to the character of contemporary society and politics was the subject of much research, scholarly and otherwise. He was considered by some to be a philosopher of the sexual revolution.
In 1934 Marcuse emigrated to the US and joined the Institute of Social Research in New York. The Encyclopedia states further:
During World War II Marcuse served in the OSS (Office of Strategic Services, which later became the Central Intelligence Agency). He worked for the U.S. Department of State until 1950. For several years thereafter he was a member of the Russian Institutes of Columbia University and Harvard University. From 1954 to 1965 he was a professor at Brandeis University.
Marcuse’s biographer Douglas Kellner writes that after the dissolution of the OSS Marcuse: ‘. . . In September 1945, . . . moved over to the State Department . . . becoming head of the Central European bureau, and remaining until 1951 when he left government service.’
The CIA, the successor to the OSS, plays a major role in the contrived ‘revolution from above.’ Frances Stonor Saunders states of the OSS that its initial recruits came from ‘America’s most powerful institutions and families.’ Apart from the Mellon family, which will be considered later, the families of J. P. Morgan, Vanderlip, DuPont, Whitney, and others were represented in it.
Professor Martin Duberman, a leading Left-wing academic theorist and activist for the ‘gay’ movement, states: ‘The philosopher Herbert Marcuse predicted that the new ‘sexual liberation movements’ would become a powerful force, the agency for producing significant social transformation.’
During the 1960s, Marcuse achieved world renown as ‘the guru of the New Left’ . . . his work was often discussed in the mass media. A charismatic teacher, Marcuse’s students began to gain influential academic positions and to promote his ideas, making him a major force in US intellectual life. After working for the US government for almost ten years Marcuse returned to university life. He received a Rockefeller Foundation grant to study Soviet Marxism, lecturing on the topic at Columbia University during 1952-53, and Harvard from 1954-55.
In 1964 Marcuse published One-Dimensional Man. Kellner continues:
In contrast to orthodox Marxism, Marcuse championed nonintegrated forces like minorities, outsiders and radical intelligentsia, attempting to nourish oppositional thought through promoting radical thinking and opposition . . .
Marcuse’s Eros and Civilization funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, became a manifesto of the 1960s counterculture and the New Left. Marcuse also received Rockefeller funding for One-Dimensional Man, stating in the Acknowledgments: ‘The American Council of Learned Societies, the Louis M. Rabinowitz Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Social Sciences Research Council have extended to me grants which greatly facilitated the completion of these studies.’
Marcuse became a cult figure among the youth of the 1960s and in 1968 when students rioted in Paris their banners proclaimed ‘Marx, Mao and Marcuse.’ Marcuse advocated the Gramscian strategy of ‘working against the established institutions while working in them.’
Among Marcuse’s students were Abbie Hoffman, the radical anarchist New Left leader, and Angela Davis, the Black Communist Party militant. Davis now works as professor in the History of Consciousness program at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Davis stood twice for the US Vice Presidency as a Communist Party candidate, and was active with the paramilitary Black Panthers. Abbie Hoffman, who died in 1989 at the age of 53, was the flamboyant nihilist youth leader of student revolt during the 1960s, co-founding the Yippies (Youth International Party) in 1967, and one of the ‘Chicago Seven’ arrested for organising a violent demonstration at the Democratic Party National Convention in 1968. Marcuse helped spawn many academics who continue to teach at universities throughout the world, in particular the US and Germany.
It is evident that much of what became modern feminism and today’s political correctness had its origins in the Frankfurt School. Erich Fromm was one of the first to state the feminist dictum that differences between the sexes were not hereditary but the result of cultural conditioning. As the conservative commentator Patrick J. Buchanan states: ‘Fromm became a founding father of feminism.’ To Wilhelm Reich, ‘The authoritarian family is the authoritarian state in miniature. Familial imperialism is . . . reproduced in national imperialism.’ To Adorno ‘the patriarchal family was the cradle of fascism.’
All the while the present-day youth who are heirs to the 1960s New Left generation spawned by the CIA and the foundations during the Cold War, supposing that they are fighting globalisation and capitalism, are simply the products of the dialectic that has welded them into a malleable mass at the service of those they think they are opposing.